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Vol. II.] MAY, 1869. [No. 5. THE CARDIFF CONGREGATIONAL MAGAZINE. CHURCH AND STATE-Contintjed. The defect of the Reformation as to the assertion of the great principle of the freedom of religion from state control, arose in great measure from the obscure views of Luther himself. He was far from having grasped the principle in all its breadth and fulness. This will appear if we quote his own words, addressed to the elector of Saxony, at a time when the Reformation had already made great pro¬ gress. "Your Highness," he says, "in your quality of guardian of youth, and all those who know not how to take care of themselves, should compel the inhabitants who desire neither pastors nor schools to receive those means of grace, as they are compelled to work on the roads and bridges, and such like services. The Papal order being abolished, it is your duty to regulate these things. No other person cares about them. No other can, and no other ought to do so. Commission, therefore, four persons to visit all the country ; let two of them enquire into the tithes and church property, and let two take care of the doctrine, schools, churches, and pastors." There could scarcely be a simpler exposition of the pernicious principle of state control in religious matters than this; and it was in harmony with the attitude Luther generally maintained in this respect. It is true that the " Confession of Augsburg," drawn up by him and Melancthon, and presented to the Emperor Charles soon after¬ wards, expresses far more advanced ideas. "The Magistrate," it said, " protects not souls, but bodies and temporal possessions," " We must take particular care not to mingle the power of the Church with the power of the State." But these just principles were never practically carried out. The issue of events showed that, while their abstract ex« cellence was in some measure recognized, the leaders of the Reformation were nowhere prepared boldly to take their stand upon them. In which¬ ever direction we look, we see the unhappy consequences. In Germany, Lutheranism gave to the ruler of each state a spiritual supremacy, and bowed to the authority of councils appointed by him to watch over the