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(Smitten Statural Qhttmt Vol. X. MARCH, 1908. No. 4 New Series. Cardiff Clock and Other Large Clocks. [By Arthur Mee.] Time was anciently measured after a rough fashion by sundials and cleosydrae or water clocks: the first-mentioned long survived, and were m common use till quite a recent period, including portable varieties. Fine specimens of dials may be seen to-day on old churches and cathedrals, and in gentlemen's grounds. The construction of clocks dates back pos¬ sibly a thousand years, though we have to come down to the 13th century to find de¬ finite allusion to any at all resembling our own. The oldest clock mentioned in England is one erected at Westminster in 1288, and there is mention of one at Cantei-bury four years later. The clock of Glastonbury Abbey, dated 1325, is still preserved, and so is one which existed at Dover Castle as far back as 1348. Many of the old clocks showed various astronomical phenomena as well as the hour, and were also adorned with figures of angels, knights, and so forth, which went through certain evolutions at the striking of the