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ALES. Vol. I] DECEMBER, 1894. [No. 8. *? WALES AND THE WHITE ROSE. HILE the genius of Sir Walter Scott has given an immortality to Scottish Jacobitism, Welsh Jacobitism has been allowed to sink into such utter oblivion that its very existence has been questioned. For this several reasons may be assigned. Although Wales gave to the rebellion of 1715 its bravest heroine, and one of its noblest martyrs to that of 1745, and in 1717 was nearly the scene of another rebellion, accident prevented the people, on all these occasions, from signalising their de¬ votion to the Stuart family, by a re¬ petition of the deeds of their ancestors in the days of the Long Parliament; and sentiments, aspirations, and even con¬ spiracies that end in nothing, tend to be forgotten. Again, even before the White Rose had sunk for the last time on Culloden Moor, the Methodist revival had com¬ menced ; and, before the eighteenth century had closed, a complete revolution had been wrought in the Welsh character, so that the old fashioned religion and loyalty of the Stuart had became unintelligible to a nation inspired by different ideals. Nor has our own time made amends. The literary and national awakening of our own day has, partly, I suspect, for de¬ nominational and political reasons, fought shy of Welsh Jacobitism ; for one party scarcely cares to recollect that their ancestors huzzaed for Doctor Sacheverell, drank to the " king over tl«3 water," and correspond¬ ed with my Lord Mar; while the other, for equally good reasons, can hardly appreciate Welsh churchmen who were the constant enemies of the constitution established by the English State. Welsh Jacobitism, however, in its time may claim to have represented the national spirit, if for no other reason than that the regime against which it fought was the enemy of all Welsh ideals. On this ground, therefore, the champions of the lost cause may fairly claim some regard from Welsh patriotism; and, were it otherwise, "sunt lacrimae rerum el mentem mortalia tangunt." The heroism with which Lady Nithsdale and her retainers from Powis-land faced death, the heroism with which David Morgan met it, should at least appeal to such lovers of the ideal as the Welsh. And further, Welsh Jacobitism is a landmark in our history. It is the end of the church and loyalist nationalism, to which the Elizabethan age gave birth. The spirit of Welsh Jacobitism may be traced in the poems of Huw Morus; and Huw Morus was the child of the national church policy of Elizabeth. In her treatment of Wales, Elizabeth and her advisers set aside, or at least modified, the Anglicising policy of Thomas Cromwell and the earlier Tudors. Welsh bishops and Welsh officials for the first time since the English rule began, appeared in Wales ; the Bible and the Prayer Book were translated into Welsh; and the Eisteddfod was assembled by royal proclamation. In the Court of the Marches at Ludlow Castle, where sat my Lord Presi¬ dent, Wales possessed through Tudor and Stuart days a focus of national life. The result of this recognition of Welsh national¬ ism for a time reconciled Wales to England, and made it, in Churchyard's opinion, the '*' soundest state," although in the early days of Gloriana the Council had trembled at the thought of sending an army through Wales to attack Irish rebels ; and in 1563 certain conspirators, two of whom bore the name of Pole, were condemned to death " for having threatened to come with a power into Wales and proclaim the Scottish 337 22