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THE MANORS OF SULLY, COSMESTON, PENARTH AND COGAN. By D. R. PATERSON, M.D., F.S.A. The following notes on this group of manors lying within the lordship of Glamorgan and immediately south of Cardiff deal mainly with the early history of their descent. The lordship of Glamorgan was one of the lordships marcher established in the Marches of Wales by the Conqueror for defence against the Welsh and giving the lord almost complete independence. An account of the organisation and adminis- tration of the Glamorgan lordship is contained in J. S. Corbett's Glamorgan. The notes are compiled largely from official sources one or two of which may be noted. In the Liber Niger of 1166, a return of knights fees held under William earl of Gloucester, there is an authentic record of holders of manors in Glamorgan, for the most part immediate descendants of the original conquerors. The Extent of Glamorgan giving a list of knights' fees in 1262 was drawn up on the death of Richard de Clare in that year. Inquisitiones post mortem (I.P.M.) made on the death of a holder to inquire what land he held, by what service, and who was his heir, are important sources of information. For much that concerns the history of Glamorgan, Clark's Cartae ct Munhnenta de Glamorgan, an important collection of original documents, charters, deeds, etc., relating to the county, from the beginning of the 12th century to the 18th, is indispensable and is largely made use of here. SULLY This manor extending along the shore of the Channel included the islands of Sully and Barry and took its name from the former. There is reason for thinking that the North- men formed settlements in the coastal lands of South Wales as early as the first half of the 9th century and that Sully is