THE 'SQUIRE OF MAINDIFF' CRAWSHAY BAILEY, JUNIOR, LANDOWNER AND BENEFACTOR by Alan Jones Introduction In an earlier article in the Gwent Local History the present author outlined the systematic acquisition of lands by Crawshay Bailey, snr., sourced mainly from the wealth generated from his ironworks and other industrial interests.' By the time of his death in 1872 the Bailey estates in Wales alone accounted for an estimated 12,284 acres and returned an estimated annual rental off 11,658.2 Building upon that earlier article, this paper attempts to give an indication of the role of Bailey's son, also named Crawshay, as an inheritor of much wealth and influence, and perhaps, more importantly, considers his role as a landowner and benefactor to a community. The background The present understanding of the Crawshay Bailey family tree is shown in Fig. 1. Although Bailey, snr. married Ann Moore in 1820, his only son, Crawshay (hereafter referred to as Bailey), was borne by Sarah Baker, a servant in his household, in 1842.' Bailey, snr. also had a daughter named Jane, but relatively little seems to be known about her other than she was born in 1823 and in 1847 married Alban Lewis Thomas Jones Gwynne whose family owned the Mynachty Mansion and Estate in the then County of Cardigan.' By the time of her father writing his will in 1867 Jane had already been widowed, but under the terms of Bailey's (snr.) will f 15,000 was to be invested thus enabling her to live off the interest. After her death her children (with the exception of her son from her late husband) were to enjoy the same benefit." Bailey apparently showed little or no interest in his father's industrial activities and interests but concentrated upon developing his landed estates.7 Perhaps because of this and given his father's partnership with his brother, Joseph, Bailey, snr., bequeathed all his share and interest in the J&C Bailey ironworks at Nantyglo and Beaufort, together with the remainder of his considerable industrial and other interests, with one exception,8 to be divided equally between his nephews William Latham Bailey and Henry Bailey (i.e. two of his late brother's sons who took an active part in the management of the two ironworks). However, in the event, both the Nantyglo and Beaufort ironworks were sold a year before his death. This was a well timed move on Bailey's (snr.) part, taking full advantage of a short-lived mini-