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allowed to supply the English, and there was always the deterrent of punishing anyone who helped the Welsh. Griffiths argues that the policy had some effect in contributing to the Welsh defeat in the rising, on the basis that the number of prohibitions issued in Chester declines after 1404.80 The Welsh had few ships, and, in any case, the English ports were to refuse them dock. Thus, in the long term, the outcomes of individual battles were less important to which side triumphed. The side controlling supply would almost certainly win; it would just be a question of when. Another potential turning point away from the battlefield was the supply of money to the English. Detailed consideration of the financial records available leads Griffiths to conclude that 'it would seem that a greater regularity of money the years after 1405 contributed in some part to the final collapse of the Welsh rising. There were, of course, many other considerations.'81 Thus, one could argue that as soon as the English had a regular and consistent supply of money, the tide had turned. Yet what these two examples serve to illustrate is that a search for a turning point is a fruitless one in this context. The idea of Glyndwr moving forwards up to 1405, then moving backwards thereafter is an attractive one. However, the situation is more complex than this. Events away from the theatres of conflict were affecting the revolt, and the revolt itself was a series of episodes, some of which were victories for Glyndwr, and some of which were not. Sometimes the tide flowed with Glyndwr, sometimes it did not. However, it did not flow completely one way up to 1405, and completely the other way thereafter. After all, even in Glyndwr's successful year of 1403, civilian government in Wales was not totally obliterated. For example, there were still courts in Dyffryn Clwyd.82 After 1405, Glyndwr still held Harlech and Aberystwyth Castles until 1408. Conclusion Where would that leave the Battle of Grosmont? Its true significance can now, perhaps, be understood. It is clearly not the cause of Glyndwr's decline. It is more an indication that the Welsh could not simply gather together forces and win. The English were regular soldiers who came upon the Welsh burning a town. In showing that the Welsh could be beaten heavily, it gave the English something to build on. With the Battle of Usk, the English started building. And, together with that battle at Pwll Melyn, Grosmont damaged the popularity of Glyndwr in the Gwent and Glamorgan areas. The Battle of Grosmont also provides a useful insight into the future Henry V's character. As we have seen, his letter is not so much wild boasting as the approach of a more shrewd man attempting to talk up a victory. Indeed, we can see the seeds of the wise, sensible nature of much of Henry V's reign. We can also see the seeds