The mace heads most likely to have been fashioned from a pebble. Like the axe- hammer, mace heads are rare in South Wales compared with the western counties of Wales. "Such mace heads are not at all common in the Southern Marches by comparison with West Wales, and they have now taken on an additional interest as a result of the identification of definite Mesolithic sites in the uplands of Glamorgan and Breconshire" (Correspondence with Dr. H.N. Savory, 1961). Although such perforated pebbles were made from the Mesolithic onwards, this example is probably later (Neolithic onwards) in date. "Little can be said of the natural oval or discoidal pebbles with countersunk or hour- glass perforations (one or two unfinished), which are fairly common as chance finds. Such forms have their origin in the Mesolithic period, but it seems likely that they lasted for a very long time, and that some at any rate served a variety of purposes as hammers, maces, weights for digging sticks, and so on." (Grimes, F.W.F., "The Prehistory of Wales, Cardiff, 1951) Donor: Mrs S Gummery, 1961. (3) Small Stone Axe Head (On Loan) OS (Sheet 161) GR 339190 Neolithic Dimensions: 9 x 4.4cm Found in a field at the rear of Pen-y-Parc Farmhouse, Llanvihangel Crucorney. The rough and unpolished nature of the axe would appear to suggest that this is in fact an unfinished "rough-out" rather than crude example. Near to the blade some flaking and polishing has been started. The stone from which it was made is a fine acid ash with small cubes of Pyrite and is probably a volcanic rock which has suffered subsequent thermal meta morphism (CBA Petrology Group VIII). It is possible therefore that the rock is derived from North Pembrokeshire and so the axe is likely to be of Welsh origin (Identified by Prof. Shotton, 1964). Reference: "Stone Axe Studies Vol. 2", T.H. McK Clough and W.A. Cummins, CBA Research Report 69, 1988. On loan from: Mr A Evans, 1964. (4) Stone Axe Head (A.12.1965) OS (Sheet 161) GR 3120 Neolithic Dimensions: 10 x 5.6cm Found in a wall at Nant-y-felin, Llanvihangel Crucorney. The axe has a flattened oval section and has been polished. The shape and form of the axe is comparatively rare for Wales being short and plump like the earliest axe-heads in South-West Europe and is therefore probably early in date (Correspondence with Dr H.N. Savory, 1965). The