In his view the leading vice was drunkenness which was encouraged by the practice of works agents also keeping public houses where 'this state of things actually prevents the operative from being sober and thrifty and holds out a reward to the drunkard it being in the interest of the employer or agent to have such men as will spend their all at his house'. His view of his Welsh parishioners, however, appear most ambiguous, for he says, 'With all their religious knowledge, I consider them to be inferior to the English in principle, honesty and sincerity' but never the less observed that 'the workpeople are very kind to each other, and will help each other in times of distress to an extent that would scarcely be believed, and ought to put to shame the paltry charity of those who are in wealthy circumstances. This feature in the character of the operatives ofthoseparts I consider to be very creditable to them a feature, however, which characterizes the Welsh portion more than any other'. Today's scholars would be sur- prised, I'm sure to learn that he considered 'the Welsh language has not any valuable writings, either in prose or poetry'. Since 1962 the church building had progressively deteriorated and in 1985 it was purchased from the Church authorities by the then landlady of the nearby Carpenters Arms. It has now been acquired by Blaenau Gwent Borough Council and, with support from CADW, restoration has taken place. A renewed interest in the history of the church has prevented it suffering the same fate as the former castle. Enthusiastic walkers of the 20th century can climb the hills to view what is surely part of our Welsh heritage. They can rest a while at the old Carpenter's Arms nearby and discuss the many other travellers who have preceded them centuries ago. FOOTNOTES 1 Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1872,154 2 Thesis by H. Bailey Parish of Lianhileth Newport Reference Library. Quotes Dr. Nash Williams. 3 Arch. Camb. 1967- "Masonry Castles in Wales and the Marches 1066 1215," pp71-132. See also Raymond Howell A History of Gwent. Gomer Press 1988. pp 209,210,211. 4 William Coxe Historical Tour of Monmouthshire Part II p. 216 5 Arch. Camb. 1924 p 385, Arch. Camb. 1925 pp 372-380 6 Howell, loc. dt. 7 Edmund Jones Geographical, Historical a Religious Account of the Parish of Aberystruth, Trefecca 1779 p 89 8 Canon Doble Lives of the Welsh Saints. Cardiff 1944, p 140 9 Editor's note: Heledd lived in Powys In the early 7th century. Her brother, Cynddylan, king of Powys. was killed by the Anglo-Saxons. She appears in Canu Heledd ('The Song of Heledd') which was corrposed in the 9th of 10th century. The poems are the verse highlights of a lost prose saga. In them. Heledd laments the death of Cynddylan and her other brothers and the destruction of her home, Penngwem (now Shrewsbury). She seems to blame herself for the diaster which has befallen them. Williams. I., (1978). Canu Llywarch Hen. pp. ixi-ixvi, 33-52. 192-244. Stephens, M.. (ed.), (1990), The Oxford Companion to the Literature of Wales, p.72. 10 Lives of the Welsh Saints as above- Chapter by D Simon Evans pp 48. 55 11 Editor's note: In fact, the castle seems to have been abandoned by the 14th century. Rees, W., (1948). South Wales and the Border in the 14th Century. 12 Arch Camb. 1872 p 158. 13 Arch Camb 1902 p 158 14 E Harcourt Mitchell Crosses of Monmouthshire Newport Reference Library pp 3,9 15 Historical Tour of Monmouthshire as above p 212 16 Arch Camb 1872 p 153 17 Arch. Camb. p 153/4 18 Lives of the Welsh Saints as above p 50 19 D H Williams MA White Monks in Gwent and the Border, Griffin Press. 1976 pp 88, 89.91 20 Monmouthshire Houses Fox & Raglan Part II pp 82, 86, 124, 129. Part III pp 76, 82, 84 21 Arch. Camb 1872 pp 156/7. Also Welsh Office Survey, September 1960. Ref. P285/801/1 22 Arthur Wright Church Bells in Monmouthshire pp 53. 54 23 Article sponsored by Rhymney Breweries (no name, no date) Newport Reference Library 24 John Wesley In Wales Ed. A.H. Williams U.W.P. 1971 pp 6/7 25 T Beynon Howell Harris. Reformer A Soldier. Trefecca 1958 pp 44/45 26 E.T. Davies Monmouthshire Schools A Education to 1870 -Appendix VI p 123 27 Commissioners Report on State of Education In Wales 1847 Letters & Replies pp 406-409