a solemn trust some two hundred before, in 1656. The debt owed by the local historian to this Quaker idiosyncrasy is not a small one. (To be continued) Footnotes 1. Friends have never used the words 'church' or 'chapel' for the premises where they congregate for worship; they believe that no place or building on God's earth is any more, or less, 'sacred' than any other. Fox once said that a 'church' was only a place of lime and stone and wood. and his adherents have always met in any building (or even out-of-doors) convenient for the occasion, this in accordance with the scriptural dictum 'Where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the midst of them'. The term 'meeting-house' for a place of worship was used by the original 'Non-conformists', i.e. those 2000 Puritan ministers who seceded from the Anglican church following the Act of Uniformity in 1662. Reference to 18th century maps of Monmouthshire will illustrate such use at Capel-Ed (Goytre), Ebenezer (Pontnewynydd) and Pen- maen (Bedwellty). Not until well into the last century was the term 'meeting- house' abandoned by Nonconformists in favour of 'chapel' and this word itself has largely been replaced nowadays by the more prestigious or respectable 'church'. 2. Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838) was a famous Quaker educationist who founded a school in Borough Road, Southwark, which is now a Teacher Training College. 3. I hope it is not necessary for me to identify in this journal the first of these three names. Mr. Smith was a business partner of Mr. Leigh who, I believe. had interests in the Tintern Iron Mills. (It was 'generally believed' that he was a natural brother of Mr. Leigh and lived at Waun Wern, Pontypool.) Mr. Watkin George achieved such distinction as warranted for him a special feature in the 'Pontypool Local Register'. In brief, he was a carpenter who lived with his parents at the Ship Inn, Crane Street, Pontypool, but later made his fortune during a sojourn at Merthyr Tydfil when he worked as an engineer for Mr. Crawshay. He then returned to Pontypool and lived in a house where the town library now stands: he became a valued business associate of Mr. Leigh. Sources A Journal-George Fox 1836. The Beginnings of Quakerism-W. C. Braithwaite 1912. The Second Period of Quakerism-W. C. Braithwaite 1919. The Quakers, Their Story and Message-A. Neave Brayshaw 1921. Quakers in Wales- T. Mardy Rees 1925. Wales under the Penal Code 1662-1687— T. Richards. History of Monmouthshire Vol. I-J. A. Bradney 1904. The South Wales Baptist College 1807-1957-D. Mervyn Himbury 1957. Memoir of Mary Capper. Several editions in the 19th century. Free Press of Monmouthshire. Quaker Meeting-houses of the Lake Counties-John Anderson 1978. Burial-grounds of the Society of Friends in Staffordshire-D. Stuart. (South Staffordshire Archaeological & Historical Society-Transactions 1970-1971. Vol. XII.) Monmouthshire Quarterly Meeting of the Society of Friends Minute books 1692- 1756. Monmouthshire Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends Minute Books 1703- 1814. Yearly Meeting for Wales of Society of Friends Minute Book 1682-1797. Wentsland and Bryngwyn Estate Roll Book. (Articles about 'Early Quakers in Monmouthshire' by Reginald Nichols appeared in 'Monmouthshire Medley' Vols. 1 & 3. Vol. 1 is out of print.)