Monmouthshire. Furthermore, this chapel society was, for along time, predominantly Welsh in speech. This is what might have been expected in view of the pattern of immigration into the county during the first half of the last century, for most of the newcomers came from West Wales and brought their language with them. This general pattern of immigration is revealed in the respective strengths of the Welsh and English congregations in the industrial areas of the county, for in every denomination the Welsh chapels were much stronger than the English in those parts for the better part of the century. To conclude this article: the Industrial Revolution created a society in Monmouthshire which was predominantly Welsh Non- conformist in character, in other words, the last century saw more Nonconformists and Welsh speakers in Monmouthshire than ever before. (To be continued). MONMOUTHSHIRE IN ARMS Recently I had occasion to look into the history of the Monmouth Militia, and I soon found myself hopelessly confused over the various military and para-military units that carried Monmouth in their names. The list below is taken entirely from printed sources. In spite of, doubtless, many errors and omissions, I think it may be of use and of interest to local historians. A. THE 43rd MONMOUTHSHIRE LIGHT INFANTRY Raised in 1741 (part of the Regular Army) as the 54th. Number changed to 43rd in 1748, which it retained until 1881, when it became the Oxfordshire Light Infantry. In 1782, the government allotted each regiment a county for re- cruiting purposes. The 43rd was allotted Monmouthshire, and be- came the Monmouth Regiment, and in 1803 became the Monmouth- shire Light Infantry. Neither then nor since has the regiment any particular connection with the county, and the Regimental Historian always refers to it as the 43rd. (Levinge-passim). In 1887, a pair of regimental colours were laid up in St. Mary's Church, Monmouth. (Sergeaunt p. 11). B. THE MILITIA: ancestor of R.M.R.E. The Militia of England dates from time immemorial as the Com- mon Law duty of every man to be ready to defend his home. After the Conquest, it was organized under the Sheriff, and, from about 1400, selected units were given special training in modern weapons.