disappeared altogether. But the younger mem- bers interestingly enough, are rallying to its sup- port in considerable numbers. These are the men and women who have been inspired by the new general outlook upon life and its problems. The calibre of the church leaders is certainly not what it was. For some unknown reason no new interest seems to have taken the place of the en- thusiasm for theological discussion that charac- terized the older folk, and the Nonconformist churches have of course suffered grievously as a result. The Parish Church on the other hand has never been dependent upon lay talent to any- thing like the same extent. Still we should be very sorry if it were thought we were not getting on. On a dark night from an YESTERDAY AND TO-DAY IN A MINING VALLEY WELSHMEN tend to think of social move- ments in terms of personalities, and, in, their minds, changes in the history of their country are reflected in the lives of men and women. They need not be outstanding persons; on the contrary they are nearly always ordinary folk, typical of towns and villages, who some- how or other have succeeded in impressing them- selves upon our minds and become significant figures. They are symbols of their day and gen- eration and fully representative of their time. Thus, when one conjures up memories of typical industrial areas in South Wales and the life lived there in manifold institutions twenty years ago, the names of men and women occur to one, and the difference between those days and ours is summed up in the gradual disappearance of an old type and the emergence of a new and differently moulded people. It is really the difference beween a prev- ious generation and ourselves. As recently as 1910 Nonconformity was a power in the lives of many more people in South Wales than it is today, and churches and chapels were not inextricably associated with the moanings and complaints of the hard and difficult times that have beset them. Amongst their ministers would be found worthy representatives of the "age of giants "-dominating personalities who would speak authoritatively, not only to their flocks but to the whole locality, and lead, when they chose to, as much in social, political and literary matters as in purely ecclesiastical affairs; Morris Noddfa, Jones Jerusalem, Williams Nebo, Canon Lewis, were greater than the limits of their de- ancient trackway that meanders from village to village and ascends the brow of the hill may be seen the twinkling lights of three villages all lit up by electricity, all of which is generated in their own corn mills. Anyone who knows these villages is also aware that in each of them are a dozen or fifteen adults who are doing something to generate for themselves a love of books and some acquaint- ance with learning. But who will blame us if we occasionally say that we prefer the soft flicker of the homely candle or that the old woman who read by the uncertain light of the old rush-the stains of the ash as it fell are still visible-knew a thing or two that we look for in vain in our economic and political text books ? by B. B. Thomas finition. Men of their mettle found others worthy of their steel in the Set Fawr, nearly always men of substance, derived from business, the profess- ions, and working men alike. When one en- tered a chapel in those days and arose to sing, the chances, in the majority of cases, would be that one faced a group of men, who, whatever their shortcomings, embodied the finer traits of the dis- trict. The shafts of criticism were already lev- elled at them in drama, in new-fangled social theories and the like, but they were still secure in public esteem. The congregations too were large, enthusiastic and melodious; memories of a recent spiritual awakening were alive; the fer- vent warmth had not disappeared, while theolo- gical controversy with the appearance of Mod- ernism, was bright and hot. Such anxiety as existed was mainly concerned with the decline in the rate of progress. There was no slump. The spirit of the age had issued its challenge but the Church was not unequal to it. These things are not so today and if, on a quiet winter's Sunday evening, one walks to church or chapel and sees the yellow glow peering from the glazed windows one cannot help but feel that the light is shining less clearly than it shone not many years ago, and that there is a wistful sadness in its gaze. The minister of today is a thoroughly decent fellow, maybe an old college friend of many members of his congregation, one who took to Philosophy, Hebrew, Greek, or Theology as others did History, Chemistry or what not, and like them he has chosen to earn his living thereby. He is mainly a professional