first Marquess of Worcester. Charles I. several times visited the castle during the civil war, being entertained with becoming magnificence. At one time the King was anxious in case the garrison stores should be all used up by his suite, and told the Marquess to exact provisions from the coun- try. "I humbly thank your Majesty," answered the old man, "but my castle would not long stand if it leaned upon the country; I had rather be brought to a morsel of bread, than that my morsels of bread should be exacted from others." Soon after the King's retreat from Monmouth- shire, the castle was threatened by Colonel Morgan, who advanced from Worcester. Yet the Marquess refused to surrender. But at last Sir Thomas Fairfax arrived from Bath and force him to give in. The Marquess was taken a prisoner to London, where he died, aged eighty- five. His estates were confiscated, though recov- ered at the Restoration. But the grand old castle had been dismantled by the Parliamentary army, a fine library being destroyed amongst other valuables. Abergavenny Castle was founded by Hameline Balun, or Baladun, son of Dru of Balun, a Norman adventurer who came over with William the Conqueror, and began to make war on the Welsh. He subdued the district and died, leaving CURRENT CHRISTIAN THINKING By Gerald B. Smith University. of Chicago Press, 1928 pp.ix 209. 1 os. net. This volume belongs to the series of handbooks on religion and ethics edited by Dr. Shailer Matthews and others and published by the University of Chicago Press. Here Mr. Gerald B. Smith's aim is to present the general reader with a review of the main trend of contemporary re- ligious thought, and the result is a thoroughly praiseworthy manual. Thus the various faiths and schools are examined in turn-Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, Modernism, Fun- damentalism, and modern Evangelicalism-to- gether with such subjects as the evolution con- troversy, the theological interpretation of the natural world, and the modern quest for God. The viewpoint is that of the new type American Evangelicalism of which Dr. Fosdick is the popular advocate, and the author shows at the outset that the crucial issue is still that of the centre of Authority in religion. He points out that the weakness of the Reformation position lay in its entanglement with the notion of an external no heir, in 1090. The castle was left to his nephew, Brian de Wallingford, or de L'isle. It was afterwards owned by Walter de Gloucester, by Milo his son, then by his three daughters, by Philip de Broase, and by his son William. Later the Welsh, under Sytsylt ap Dyfnwald, captured it. William, however, regained it in exchange, invited several Welsh chieftains to the fortress, and had them treacherously murdered. From the Broases it descended to the Cantelupes, the Hastings, Valences, Herberts, Greys, Beau- champs, and Nevilles. Nowadays its ruins are a favourite resort of many seeking a quiet and pleasant spot in which to sit, and various enter- tainments are sometimes held within the grounds. The builders of castles would be very much astonished if they could see the use the results of their labours are now put to. But the war-like might of castles, like everything else, must in its turn pass away. And it is when we contemplate the present condition of these once mighty strong- holds that we realise more than ever the truth of those Recessional lines of Mr Rudyard Kipling's:­ The tumult and the shouting dies; The captains and the kings depart. Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice, An humble and a contrite heart. REVIEWS infallibility. It rejected the infallibility of Holy Church only to re-affirm that of Holy Scripture, and thus laid itself open to the retort that, even so, it was the Church that had collected and se- lected the sacred books and pronounced upon the canon. If the Church's authority was to be re- jected, how were the Scriptures to be authenti- cated? The result was, as Mr. Smith indicated, the elaboration of a doctrine of scriptural infalli- bility which rested more or less upon theological dialectic; human reason and critical scholarship were marshalled for the defence, and in course of time they controlled the strategy of Protestant dogmatics. The line was shortened, external in- fallibility itself was gradually abandoned, and to- day the entire authoritarian basis of Protestantism is in process of readjustment. This is all very true, and Mr. Smith reviews the situation with eminent fairness and lucidity. As a positive contribution perhaps the book leaves something to be desired. But to all who desire a concise and lucid exposition of the present status of Christian beliefs this book may be heartily commended. There is an index, and, for the benefit of the lay reader, each chapter concludes with a list of appropriate text-books. G.O.G.