of Clonard spent many years under the tuition of St. David. St. Rioc, a Welshman, was the companion of Finnian at the monastery of Rosuah. Later he became abbot of Innis- bofrin, an island in the Shannon. It was not unusual to see Irish pilgrims passing through Wales in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Giraldus saw a poor pilgrim in Wales with a bronze-bound horn slung round his neck as a relic which had belonged once to Patrick. For awe of the Irish saint, no one had ever dared to blow it. Bernard, a Welsh priest, snatched the relic and blew a blast upon it. The consequences of this rash act were terrible according to the chronicler. Bernard was struck with palsy, and his mouth was twisted right up to his ear; and he who had been once eloquent was bereft of speech. The afflicted priest crossed over to Ireland, and prayed to St. Patrick to heal him. He was partially restored, but was never the same as before. The Irish and Welsh Churches bore a striking resemblance in architecture. We have already referred to their resemblance in con- stitution and practice. The Celtic clergy were not above taking part in secular pursuits they did not believe in the celibacy of the Roman Catholic Church. Both countries had their anchorites and revered bells, wells, croziers, and other relics. Such was the regard of the Irish for these things that Giraldus called them idol- worshippers. I should not omit to state also that portable bells, and the crooks of holy men of former times, curved at the upper end and wrought with gold, silver, or bronze, are held in deep reverence by both clergy and laity in Ireland and Scotland, as thev are in Wales."8 The clergy of both nations were expert in theology and the legendary lore of the Celtic Church was such that all countries could draw from it without stint. Ariosto called Ireland Hibernia Fabulosa," and the title held good during the period which is under our consider- ation. Ireland was honoured in Wales as the home of Patrick, whose theory of purgatory cast a spell over the minds of the people. His doctrine affected the theology and literature of Christendom. The adventures of Knight Owain in the realm of shades was known in many lands. Dante enshrined the theory in imperishable fame, for there can be no doubt that the Italian poet was influenced by the Irish saint. One writer went so far as to claim the master- piece as of Irish origin.9 Pilgrims resorted to 8 Tonog. of Ireland." Dis. III.. Cap. 33. 9 In all probability Dante borrowed much material from the British monk. Fursey. Henrv of Salt- ery, whose Latin version of Patrick's Purga- tory" bears the date of 1152, was also known most likely to him. [Contributions in prose or poetry are invited from readers. These should be addressed to the Editor, WELSH OUTLOOK, Newtown, and in every instance accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope.] Piinhni Padrig from Wales, and all parts of Europe. Giraldus gives an interesting account of the spot. There is a lake in Ulster contain- ing an island divided into two parts. In one of these stands a church of especial sanctity, and it is most agreeable and delightful the other part, covered with rugged crags, is reported to be the resort of devils only, and to be almost always the theatre on which crowds of evil spirits visibly perform their rites. This part of the island contains nine pits. and it is said that the one who has submitted to the torments there as a penance, will not afterwards undergo the p;uns of he!I." Giraldus speaks of the place as being divided into paradise and purgatory.10 Two pilgrimages to St. David were considered equal to one pilgrimage to Rome, hence the popu- larity of the Welsh shtine in Ireland. The well- cultus was popular in both lands. Several Irish wells according to Giraldus had wonderful powers. A well in Munster could change the colour of the hair. He, himself, saw a man who had bathed in its water, a part of his beard turned white, while the other part retained its dark natural colour. In Ulster there was a well which pre- vented those who washed in it from becoming grey. In Connaught, at the top of a mountain lie saw a spring of water which ebbs and flows twice a day like the tide, and like a well near the Castle of Dincfor in South Wales.11 Pilgrims from Ireland visited St. Winifred's Well and the well of St. the Welsh goddess of love. Hydromancy was common to both peoples. The following is an example of the prayer offered at a holy well ■: Water, water, tell me truly Is the man that I love duly On the earth, or under the sod Sick or well, in the name of God." Ireland, like Wales, had wells of cursing as well as of blessing. The importance of pilgrim- ages in both countries cannot be over-rated, for they exercised a good influence upon religion, literature and commerce. Ireland and Wales never ceased to protest against the crime of the Norman settlers who sub- jected the national Church to the power of the State. After long centuries of abuse the Irish Church was disestablished by Gladstone, and Wales in 1920 was declared free from the tram- mels of State. Thus religion in both countries has recovered the freedom it enjoyed before the advent of the invader. 10 « Topog. of Ireland." Dis. II., Ch. V. 11 Topog. of Ireland." Dis. II., Ch. VII.