Ecclesiastical Relations between Ireland and Wales. IN THE ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH CENTURIES. By the Rev. T. Mardy Rees, F.R.Hist.S. IRELAND and Wales had practically the same ideals in religion. Both countries stoutly resisted the Roman Catholic doctrine, and their Christianity was what might be termed Celtic. The Synod of WJiitby rejected this Celtic form of religion, nevertheless, the clergy of Ireland and Wales refused to submit to the Pope. Ireland had four archbishops at the time of Invasion1 — Armagh, Cashel, Dublin and Tuam — and about twenty-eight bishops. Wales had one archbishop and four bishops. When Henry 11. was crowned king of England he sent John of Salisbury to Rome to obtain the sanction of Pope Hadrian IV to invade Ireland. Then it was believed that all islands belonged to the Pope, and he had jurisdiction over th.uri. Having informed Hadrian that his aim in invad- ing Ireland was to extend the boundaries if the Church, to restrain vice, encourage virtue, promote religion, and enforce the payment of Peter's pence.2 The Invasion was to take the colour of a crusade. The Norman custom was first to seize lands, build castles, and then as expiation endow a religious house. Their num- erous benefactions declare to what extent they had robbed the natives. The Welsh prince, Griffith ap Cynan, endowed the Church in Dub- lin, where he had been reared in childhood; and Strongbow assisted Archbishop Laurence in the restoration and completion of the Cathedral of Christ Church, Dublin. He also founded at Kilmainhan, near Dublin, a priory for the knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Strong- bow had destroyed many churches in Ireland during his conquest of the island3; and his gifts were a kind of poultice on a guilty con- science. Giraldus declared that the clergy of Ireland were well enough in point of piety, and that they possessed many virtues, chief among which was continence. They were devoted to their sacred duties, and were scrupulously regular in their 1 Hoveden, under the year 1171. 2 Henry promised the Pope that he would cause a penny to be paid to St. Peter for every house in Ireland. (Preface to second revised edition of the History dedicated to King John). Giraldus complained that this (propitiation to God for his bloodv 'conquests and the profits of it had not been paid. 3 Vide Annals of the Four Masters, under date of 1176. (O'Donovan's translation from the Irish). Maurice "a discreet and learned man." Gir. Camb". Top. Dis. Ill., Ch. 32. Giraldus was in Ireland as a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic and supporter of the policy of Henry II. attendance upon psalms, prayers, lessons and hours. If anything, they were too devoted to the cloister. They were most sparing in their diet during the day, but indulged at night. The Archbishop of Cashel4 gave Giraldus a striking retort when a papal legate in his presence blamed the Irish prelates for the low standard of morality in the country. Giraldus in order to strengthen the argument stated that no one in Ireland through zeal for the church of God had won the crown of martyrdom. Very true," answered the Archbishop, because although our people may seem rude, fierce, and barbarous, yet they have always paid great honour and reverence to ecclesiastics, and have never on any occasion raised their hands against God's holy saints. But now there have come into this island men of a nation that knows how to make martyrs and is accustomed to do it. Henceforth, Ireland, like other countries, will have its martyrs."5 Giraldus called this a witty side-thrust, but not to the point. The Archbishop no doubt alluded to the murder of Thomas a Becket. The Irish clergy who met at the Council of Armagh in 1170, discussed the coming of strang- ers into Ireland, and came to the conclusion that it was for the sins of their countrymen, and particularly as a punishment for their inveterate practice of purchasing English and Welsh slaves from merchants, bandits, and pirates. The vengeance of heaven had come upon them, and the Irish bv a just retaliation were reduced to servitude by those very nations. They pro- claimed all such slaves in Ireland free, but the practice did not cease, for slaves from Bristol and South Wales were afterwards sold to Irish merchants. At the convocation of Clonfert6 in 1170, by commission of the Pope, Alexander III, it was resolved to reform certain abuses of long stand- ing in Ireland. Henceforth no layman was to have rule over any church or its affair^ holy orders were to be given to bishops' or priests' sons. The livings of seven bishops vbo .vcre laymen were taken away from thorn. This, custom of ordaining the sons of the clergy to the sacred office of the Church was also in vogue in Wales. The intercourse between Ireland and Wales had been most intimate in religion. Pilgrims from Ireland who desired to visit shrines in Wales, England, and the Continent7 usually crossed to St. David's. The shrine of the Welsh saint was exceedingly popular among the Irish 5 Topog. of Ireland." Dis. III., Cap. 32. 6 Annals of Clonmnacnoise," under date of 1170 Vide Magcoghcgan's translation from the Irish. 7 A hospital for Irish pilgrims was built at Genoa before the English invaded Ireland. Irish and Welsh pilgrims were allowed to play on their national instruments before the altar of the at Santiago—"Some sang to the Cathedral at Santiago-" Some sang 1o the accompaniment of the flute, others to the British and Welsh harp and crwth."