A Survey of International Affairs in 1925,* A SUMMARIZED INTRODUCTION. By Rev. Gwilym Davies, M-A. A. 1. The average Frenchman is convinced of two things (a) that no country in the world has ren- dered to civilization a greater service than his own; (b) that across the fragile frontier live les Boches who have ravaged and may ravage again what is to him the fairest of all earth's possessions. 2. It is this conviction, so deeply rooted in the French mind, that has dictated the foreign policy of France-" the policy of encircling the enemy." Before the War France relied upon Russia on the East and upon England standing by her on the West. After the War it looked as if she could break with her traditional policy. She was promised (1) an Anglo-American Pact; (2) a British guaran- tee against a fourth invasion by Germany. Neither promise materialized leaving France, in French minds, as defenceless as ever. 3. Then began the old game with new players- the countries which owed so much to the Treaty of Versailles and to whom France would act as Foster-Mother- POLAND, CZECHO SLOVAKIA, RUMANIA. (a) Poland. Development of Poland, with generous assistance from France, during last few years amazing. She has welded into one State-Russian (Congress) Poland, Austrian Poland, and German Poland. Entirely new army-new Civil Service- new currency. Old enmity remains unchanged. e.g. (1) Most prominent sight in Warsaw to-day is the comparatively new Rus- sian Orthodox Cathedral in process of demolition. (2) Tariff War between Germany and Poland-very bitter. (3) In Dantzig the Poles are converting the beautiful bathing and pleasure ground of the Dantzig People into an Ammunition Dump to store munitions from France. (b) Czecho Slovakia has made immense strides under President Masaryk and M. Benes and is the leader in the Little Entente." Has political conventions with Rumania and Poland-both of which have political conventions with France. Con- cerned with (1) a large German minority and (2) with the fear of the restoration of the Monarchy in Hungary. (The Notes of a Lecture on "International Rela- tions," given at the Copec Summer School, 1925). (c) Rumania-bounded on the one side by Hungary and when Hungarian Parliament in session flag flies at half-mast-a sign of mourning for Transylvania and the other last Provinces. Every Hungarian child taught to say, I believe in God and in the resurrection of Hungary." But Hungary is not the immediate menace of Rumania. Her nightmare is the Soviet Govern- ment. (1) Rumanian bar gold sent to Russia for safety during the War seized by the Bolshevists. (2) Russian Black Sea Pre-War Fleet now in Rumanian ports and at Tunis (French). (3) Bessarabia given to Rumania by Con- ference of Ambassadors in 192O--ces- sion objected to by Soviet Government and Bessarabia still appears on Soviet maps as Russian territory. France and what are sometimes called her satellite states or technically the successor states are insistent upon the preservation of territories as they exist-and the boundaries as they have been drawn by the Treaties of 1919- 1922-boundaries to which neither Russia nor Germany (nor Hungary) is likely to submit. B. 1. Germany. I do not pretend to speak with slightest authority of Post-War Germany but my impression after two recent visits is that Germany has regained confidence and is finding her hap- piness in work. She has been in the depths and is coming up again with her magnificent discipline unbroken. (a) After a recuperation-almost unparalleled -she looks, if she can bear the terrific and increasing strain of the Dawes plan payments, as if she will become as strong as ever. As she becomes stronger it is possible that Republicanism will grow weaker. You can," said a German Republican to me in the Hinderburg-Marx election-" convert a Monarchy into a Republic in 20 days-it takes 20 years to create a nation of Republicans and there is no hope of our Republic lasting as long as that." (b) Feeling towards English speaking people most kindly, due perhaps to (1) Mr. Ramsay MacDonald's handling of the London Conference of 1924, (2) our model occupation of Cologne-a restraint which contrasts rather sharply with the pin- pricks of the French in other occupied areas. 2. From an International Point of View.-Ger- man position since last January has been full of interest and of the utmost significance to the Peace of the World.