know French at all an innocent man may be con- demned. It is said that that happened some months ago at Kemper; an accused man was condemned to death when neither he nor the wit- nesses knew any French. An enquiry made on this question had no result. Education. This most important subject is neglected by the French. The education given by the schools aims solely at correcting certain French faults. But these are faults which do not exist among the Bretons, while they suffer often from opposed ones. Thus it is that French edu- cation has such a deplorable effect in Brittany. The Bretons lack will-power, initiative, observa- tion and self-confidence. The schools diminish their self-confidence and give them nothing in return. (III). The French Government does not desire to be useful to Brittany but considers her, more or less, as an inferior and resourceless people. For instance, with regard to the economic situation, Brittany, being outside the French industrial centres, receives nothing for maintaining her own industries. Therefore since her annexation, she has been slowly declining, and it would need now an enormous effort to put her in the position which she ought to occupy. The railways, the roads, the canals, have been badly made, and no new ones are being made or planned. The ports receive nothing; no subsidy ever reaches the country and yet the return from Breton taxes goes entirely to Paris Thanks to her maritime situation, to the number and excellence of her ports, and the bravery of her sailors, Brittany was formerly rich. What remains to her to-day? Saint Malo, Morlaix and Lorient are dead and the development of Brest is being hindered. Brittany is a productive country; larger than Denmaric it might rival her in the production of butter and eggs. It might export its cattle, and, above all, its famous horses; but the customs system makes development impossible. (IV). If the Fench Government does not desire to be useful to Brittany, it knows very well how to use her. In the last war so many Bretons were conscripted that their dead amounted to more than 200,000 — the largest proportion of killed in any of the armies, amounting to one-sixteenth of the population. And if, because of the bad peace, there should be a new war, the same thing would happen again. To-day, the population of France is declining while Brittany is prolific. The Government en- deavours to introduce the surplus population from certain districts of Brittany into the most de- populated districts. It is hardly necessary to say again that all the return of taxes collected in Brittany is used else- where. » Such then is the situation in which government by France has placed us. To get a complete picture let us consider now from the moral point of view the influence of French decadence and of the French mind. Everything conspires against the strong racial morality of the Bretons-teach- ers, commercial travellers, tourists, barrack life, a visit to Paris. The scepticism of some, the mockery of others, unsettles the mind of these believers. "Life is short-there is but little time to enjoy oneself"-that is the gospel. Books and newspapers represent the decay of morals as a feature of modern life; neo-Malthusian propa- ganda is beginning its ravages. Ill-prepared to resist all these influences, many a Breton has lost faith and moral discipline and at the same time the language, the traditions and the dress of his fathers. The result of this state of things is that Bretons do not feel happy; they are looking either for some path which will yield immediate satisfaction, or for a hope of better days to come. It is this last which the League of Young Bretons claims to offer to them. To save Brittany from her present situation there is but one way-the gaining of complete autonomy. That alone can save her from French tyranny in education and in the administration of justice, can enable her to develop her resources, and to take measures to preserve her Celtic character and to resist the decadent influence of France. Could this new regime be called complete autonomy? Certainly, for what would hence- forward be the role of the French government in Brittany? It would be nil. It is useless to juggle with words-we must realise that Brittany must have complete autonomy. When she has attained this status she will be ready to take her place in the future Society of Nations, or in the Federation of European Nations (if such a union is achieved). She will have reconquered her place in the world. In considering the question of autonomy we must take into consideration the actual state of things in Brittany and in France. I. In Brittany. It must not be forgotten that the French Government has been pursuing its anti-Breton policy for 130 years; it would be extraordinary if it had not obtained some result. The people, who had clung long to their national traditions, are beginning to be ashamed of their language and all their national characteristics; the cities and towns hardly seem anv longer to be Breton. It is evident that there is complete indifference to everything that is Breton. The present state of things is accepted as inevitable. The upper classes of the country are completely French, and have been so for a long time. They use only the French language, are soaked in Latin culture, believe themselves to be French, and have no feeling that the present situation is tragic and must be changed. Those, at least, are the sentiments of all men of mature age and of a great number of young people. Fortunately, however, many of the latter have, either instinctively or after reflection, abandoned this way of thinking and are coming, little by little, to be Breton nation- alists.