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THE WELSH OUTLOOK IOCTOBERS1921. The Editor does not necessarily identify himself with thd opinions of contributors to the Welsh Outlook." Editorial responsibility is limited to the views expressed in the Notes of the Month," and in the unsigned article immediately fpllowing. NOTES OF THE MONTH The League of Nations. The last meeting of the League of Nations was in every way remarkable. The discussion on the subject of Vilna shewed the growth of a real European public opinion, finely voiced in Mr. Balfour's speech. In the old days Poland and Lithuania would each have gone its own way into inevitable war, and the general public opinion of Europe would have affected neither country, just as the very definite public opinion of Europe failed to stop England from entering upon the South African War. Now this opinion of civilized humanity is an active force, which is able already to act as a deterrent on the selfishness of the individual State. Nor is it active only-as some would like to say-in the case of small States like Poland and Lithuania. Even France, represented by M. Hano- taux, was called over the coals. It is an unpleasant fact that for some reason or other some French in- fluences should block the efforts made by philanthropic men and women for the protection of women and children against vice. It was, however, well that France should know Europe's opinion on the subject, and we cannot help feeling that an open discussion of the Irish problem at Geneva would be a blessing to English statesmen and Ulster agitators. But one of the outstanding successes of the League was the establishment of a Permanent International Court of Justice. It was no extravagance on the part of the President to declare that in this an international event of the highest political and moral significance had taken place. More than forty States, representing all parts of the globe, had agreed upon the choice of fifteen eminent men whose mission would be to exercise the highest form of justice ever known to history. Let us pay homage to this historical event, which opens a new era in the life of the community of nations." Ireland. We abstain this month from making any detailed comment on the Irish situation at the moment, as the position must be enormously affected by the Premier's reply to Mr. De Valera's letter, which has still to appear. One or two facts should, however, be mentioned. When we are told that it is impossible to recognise Ireland as an independent Sovereign State, we think that those who say it think confusedly. It should be remembered that by an Act passed in the year 1783, of which the vital portion still remains on the Statute Book, England actually made this recognition. What- ever may have been the position previously, there is no shadow of a doubt that in that year England did actually recognise Ireland as such. Even Professor Dicey, the strong Unionist controversialist, allows that between 1783 and 1800 the Imperial Parliament had no more right to legislate for Ireland than it had to legislate for France. The one link that united the two kingdoms during that period was the fact that they had a common Sovereign. In 1800 came the Act of Union, under which Ireland was forced into a reluctant union with England by methods of fraud and force, which would have made any contract so obtained invalid in any Court in Christendom. When Mr. De Valera claims, therefore, to speak for Ireland as the represen- tative of a Sovereign State-if it means no more than a return to the 783 position-he makes a claim which, to our mind, is arguable in English law, although we say frankly that the declaration of 1919 by the Dail Eireann professing to constitute Ireland an independent Republic, was ultra vires and unlawful. England's proper and safest course would be to recognise Ireland as a Sovereign State governed by the same King as England, and we trust Mr. Lloyd George will not hesitate to re-open negotiations on this basis. The Welsh National Council. Although the Conference held at Llandrindod Wells in July gave a practically unqualified blessing to the idea of a National Council of Educa- tion for Wales, it did not go much further. The really material and crucial question of representation, finance, relationships to Whitehall and