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THE WELSH OUTLOOK The Editor does not necessarily identify himself with the opinions of contributors to The We13h Outlook." Editorial responsibility is limited to the views expressed in the Notes of the Month," and in the unsigned article immediately following. NOTES OF THE MONTH If the League of Nations has League of really, as it seems, effected a settle- Nations ment of the difficulties that divide Triumph. Poland and Lithuania, it has indeed accomplished a notable work, which presages well for its future, and, indeed, for the future of Europe. The question at issue between the two countries presents very peculiar difficulties, and if the principles which have been laid down by some promi- nent English politicians in regard to Ireland, Wales, and Brittany were applied to their case, no settlement at all would be possible except the complete absorption of Lithuania irr Poland. From the fifteenth century onwards Lithuania was part of Poland. No specific Lithuanian culture has ever existed, so at least the Poles tell us. It has had no literature except in the form of translations of the Bible, and some unimportant liturgical works. More than this, the great men of Lithuania have made their mark, not in Lithuanian but in Polish history. The last hero of the old independent Poland, Kosciusko, and Poland's greatest poet, Mickiewicz, were both Lithuanians. Another, and somewhat less important point, is that some of the Polish nobles hold great estates in Lithuania. It is not surprising, there- fore. that it is now urged by the Poles that the modern attempts to revive Lithuanian nationality have been inspired by the enemies of Poland. Indeed, it is not much less, of a sacrifice for Poland to give up Lithuania than it would be for England to give up its claim to all sovereignty over Wales or Ireland. That the League of Nations should have been able to induce Poland to accept Lithuanian independence even in principle is no small triumph, and it is certainly an inspiring promise of what the League may be able to achieve in the realm of European relationships in the future. The outlook, however, is darkened bv the completion of the Franco- Belgic Military Convention, which the signatory govern- ments have refused to submit to the League in spite of the definite provisions of Article 18 of the Covenant. OCTOBER, 1920. The triumph of the League in Eastern Europe we hope and pray will make it easier for its supporters to con- vince the defaulting nations of the dishonest breach of contract which they have committed. The Coal At the moment of writing the coal Crisis strike notices have been suspended for a week, and judging by the few hints dropped by those who were present at the first meeting of the miners' leaders and the owners, the outlook is altogether more promising in so far as this actual crisis is concerned; but the tragedy is that although we may stave off the disaster of a coal strike at the moment, there is no certainty, not even a probability, that a solution will be arrived at, which will produce stability and peace in this industry, and prove a model for producing similar conditions in other industries. During the last few days before the expira- tion of the miners' notices, the attitude of the officers of the great trade unions was admirable in every way, and must have convinced their crustiest opponents that they were working for peace. And, similarly, in spite of a good deal of rather brutal propaganda in the earlier days of the crisis, the representatives of the Govern- ment were studiously conciliatory. But the main ques- tion is whether there is a real desire on both sides to face fundamental issues, 0; is it all an attempt to get into position for an ultimate fight which may mean ruin for society, as we understand it. As we understand it, the workers have two great grievances,-the first an economic one against the whole organisation of industry, which they consider wasteful, unjust, and cruel. They demand something in the nature of its democratic control which will, they con- tend, save them and the community from the greed of the individual, and result in a just distribution of the proceeds of industry and more decent conditions of existence all round. Their second grievance is a poli- tical one-they feel their power for action generally is out of all proportion to their political influence, and