twelve months to an Eisteddfodic Board of Adjudicators, who might award a special National Eisteddfod medal of merit to the author of the work deemed best deserving such national recognition. There is now being manifested a growing desire in various parts of Wales to re-establish the old provincial Eisteddfod. We have in Anglesey and in Denbighshire two striking examples of such resuscitation of great county Eisteddfodau, well organised, established on sound financial basis, and capable of performing service second only to that of the National Eisteddfod itself. Why should not this movement be encouraged ? Why should not all such county or provincial (as distinguished from local or dis- trict) Eisteddfodau be federated, or affiliated to the National Eisteddfod and represented-on terms-on the National Governing Body? Why could not the examinations and PHYSICAL CULTURE IN WALES By E. Colston Williams, M.D., M.O.H. for Breconshire. THE last decade in English medicine has shewn two noteworthy trends of thought, one the increased appreciation of how much more rational a procedure it is to concentrate on prevention rather than on remedial treatment of disease; the other, that by the methods of the Greek physicians who counselled a wise use of baths, exercise, and diet much might be done that we neglect to do. The ideal of the Greek was a healthy, well exercised, clean and fit body as the basis of a trained and acute mind. In his conception of beauty of man or woman, poise and grace were as essential as the clean body and the sane mind. The influence of this idea can be traced through the scholastic foundations that are tinged with the classical tradition of the Renaissance, and it has had a profound influence on the training in the English public schools, and has even usurped the place of mental training. Moderation demands an equal pace for the training of both body and mind. A fit body is a body fitted by training to resist to a high degree both the onslaught of disease and furnish the best conditions for mental develop- ment. The Athenian of the time of Pericles may well be said to have attained to a high degree of active citizenship. He was conscious that he was an incorporate part of the State, that the beauty and greatness of his city vitally mattered, and that its prosperity in peace, and its success in war were facts of life and death to him. In what way, we ask, can the Greek idea, amplified by many centuries of human experience, by the gleanings of science and en- riched by Christian ethic be applied to the national life of Wales? For early childhood we can ask that the instinctive joy and activity of vigorous growth may have fuller scope. In the infant schools we demand too much from the child's attention when its normal trend is restless curiosity and gleaning from casual observation. The wise educator certificates of such affiliated organisations be recognised bytheGorscddasequalto matriculation,-the final examina- tion for Gorseddic degrees in music, art, and literature alone being reserved for the National Gorsedd ? I am conscious that, daring and revolutionary as some of these proposals may appear, I have done the subject much too scant justice, and have left untouched many important aspects. I leave to abler minds and more informed judgments to fill in the blanks, and to fit in the paris of this very roughly outlined scheme. If, even by its defects, the foregoing should induce others to submit suggestions to the authorities named in the opening paragraphs, and should lead to well consideed discussion of the whole subject at Barry next year, this article will, after all, have served some useful purpose. will find an adequate outlet for the energy that is expressed in restlessness by a more liberal training in play and ordered simple movement to the rhythm of music. Almost until now, childhood's Instincts have piped and the educa- tion authorities have not danced. Education in the past meant a lesson book overshadowed by a stick-now for early childhood it means movement, form and colour with things to handle and to make. Later years to adolescence shew the same needs but with growing capacities. Attention improves, so also the possibilities of effort. But what have we done for them ? We have cooped children up in an asphalted playground as a disorderly mob, and the playground of their leisure is the street. Have we taught them the elements of social association and co-operation in their games ? We have not. If they have learned it in any measure, it is of themselves. After adolescence, the fortunate few proceed to the secondary schools, which do make some provision for games and dancing. Those who proceed to college have further chances. This means that in democratic Wales the bulk of our children grow up without having been taught to play, and are almost untrained in body. The scrappy experience of drill has done little or nothing for them. It was a dull and weary business, done as a rule, in tight clothing, under unsuitable conditions, and often unsuited to the age or strength of the child. When we have unified our national education we must remedy all this. It should be our aim that each child in Wales should have such play and physical training as is suitable to its age and strength that there should be ample playgrounds in pleasant surroundings playing fields for the adolescents, and in each town and village a place where play and exercise under cover may be possible in bad weather. Each child should have a continuous