question to say that the problem is fundamentally a human and not an economic one and that what is wanted are new ethical considerations and a more human spirit. As long as men and capital are the combatants for the well defined terrain known to capital as profit and to workmen as unpaid labour, ethical con- siderations do not exist. Partnership is unthinkable. An understanding" for sharing the spoils is communally criminal. For the moment the venue of the struggle has changed from Cardiff to White- hall. Government control has brought with it its rival claimants upon the prosperity of the industry. It has brought with it the closer unification of labour in the entire mining industry. The interests of the coalowners have been made common. But the elements of strife between capital and labour remain what they were albeit the method of conducting the struggle has been modified. Unrest will therefore go on. The only change that will take place will be in fighting tactics and a clearer understanding of the goal to be attained. The coalowners understand their goal. It is that common to all capitalism, the securing of the largest possible return upon invested capital. Member of Executive Council of South Wales Miners Federation. THE REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL UNREST IN WALES* WE welcome this Report as an official docu- ment of the utmost value and importance, and one that is of absorbing interest to those who are concerned with the social problem in Wales, both as it immediately affects the war and in its more permanent aspects. It is the longest and most important of the eight district reports of the Com- mission of Enquiry into Industrial Unrest recently appointed by the Prime Minister. We congratulate Mr. Lleufer Thomas and his colleagues on the thoroughness with which they have accomplished their task in the very short time allotted to them, and would respectfully urge the Government to carry out as many as possible of their recommenda- *Commission of Enquiry into Industrial Unrest. No. 7 Dis- trict-Wales and Monmouthshire. Report of the Com- missioners. Signed by D. Lleufer Thomas (Chairman), Thomas Evans, Vernon Hartshorn, Edgar L. Chappell (Sec- retary). Obtainable from H.M. Stationery Office, St. Andrews Crescent, Cardiff. Price 6d. There is every indication that owners' tactics will be mere counter-moves to the tactics of labour. The workmen will struggle for the power of the offensive. Understanding of the process of it all is gradually being attained. The educational movement among the miners of South Wales is rapidly spreading. Industrial unrest is not now a symptom of the desire for higher wages only. Mingled with this and inseparable from it is a powerful impulse for an elevation of working class status in our national polity. This will develop pari passu with increasing power of control in the industry so vitally affecting their lives. Increasing control can only be won for workmen at the expense of control by capitalists. This spells warfare and will be a purely economic effort. The struggles for greater control will constitute some of the next steps. Even if the Government nationalises the mines, it is clear from the evidence that unrest will still continue. The struggle for control will be waged against the Government long after nationalisa- tion is an accomplished fact. The educated miners have for some time passed beyond the point of the view which regarded industrial nationalisation as the panacea for all our social ills. Frank Hodges. tions without delay. The Government had the wisdom to appoint the Commission. Will they have sufficient initiative to act immediately on its recommendations? Or will official inertia or pre- occupation with purely military problems consign this Report, like so many others, to the dead-letter office? The immediate aim of the Report, in accordance with the Commission's terms of reference, is to advise the Government how best to deal with industrial unrest in so far as it weakens the State in the prosecution of the war. But while faithful to this immediate purpose, the Report repeatedly calls attention to the more permanent aspects of the pro- blem. In fact, it has great intrinsic value quite apart from the war. Labour unrest in Wales, especially in the South Wales coalfield, is by no means a temporary state of things caused by con- ditions arising from the war, though doubtless it is aggravated by such conditions it is rather a deep- rooted and chronic dissatisfaction with the present