PAPER-MILLS AND PAPER-MAKERS IN WALES 1700¾1900 JOHN Tate, a 'citizen and mercer of London', is considered to be England's first paper-maker. Paper made at his mill in Hertford- shire was used by Wynkyn de Worde to print an English edition of Anglicus Bartholomaeus' book De Proprietatibus Rerum in 1495. A paper industry, however, did not emerge until the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. As far as is at present known, the industry grew up still later in Wales as late as the eighteenth century. In his study of the historical geography of the industry, A. H. Shorter has noted the existence of a paper-mill in the Principality as early as the year 1706 at Halghton in Flintshire.1 That there were other mills operating in the eighteenth century is also known, although the evidence for their existence is very scanty. Until the end of the seventeenth century, the bulk of the paper used in England for 'wrapping, writing, and printing'2 was made on the Continent.3 Italy and France were the main suppliers in Tudor times. During much of the seventeenth century France had a virtual monopoly of the English market. The last few decades of the century, however, marked a 'turning-point in the history of the paper-supply to this country',4 for England now drew her supplies from the growing home industry. Italian, German, Dutch and small amounts of French paper from the Netherlands were also imported. By 1720, the industry was firmly established, and England produced the greater part of her total home consumption, although paper of high quality continued to be imported from the Continent. Since the existing evidence relating to the early history of paper-mills and paper-makers is scanty and scattered, this article outlines the principal facts concerning the industry in Wales before the year 1900. Monmouthshire is not included in the survey as A. H. Shorter has already traced the history of paper-mills in that county.5 From the beginning of the period, the industry was concentrated in certain areas Holywell, Caerwys, and Wrexham in the North; Haverfordwest, Crickhowell, and Cardiff, later in the nineteenth century, in the South. That there were mills at such places as Hope, Chirk, Llanrwst, and Llanrug in North Wales; and Carmarthen, Llandeilo Tal-y-bont, and Llangyfelach in South Wales, is also certain. As would be expected, nearly all the early mills were located along river valleys, close to clear and swiftly-flowing streams, for exceptionally large supplies of clean water, both for power and as a raw material, were basic requirements for paper-making. A plentiful supply of linen