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The earliest known documentary reference to lead mining in north Cardigan- shire, however, is dated 1304-5, and appears among the accounts kept by William de Rogate which Miss Myvanwy Rhys has published, with a translation, in her book Ministers' Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306. Part I. Text and Translation. (Cymmrodorion Record Series, No. xiii). [London, 1936], pp. 380-1: 'From the miners working in the lead mine near Llanbadarn by a fixed agreement made with them viz. that of the total issues of the mine yielded by their operations every ninth foot-called formel-of the lead shall belong to my Lord and all the rest remain to the miners for their labour. For part of the lead belonging to my Lord by that agreement from the issues of the mine, for the present year and four pre- ceding years, 39 feet sold this year at the price of 16d. the foot. Sum 52s.' Memo- randa appended to this entry inform us that of the rest of the lead remaining with the workmen 'my Lord shall have as much as he will at the price of 32S. the cart- load', and 'that throughout the aforesaid period there were only four workmen because more could not be found. And yet the mine is good if sufficient work- men could be found'. Of the many references given by the author of Fodinae Regales to grants by Letters Patent for the digging of ores in Great Britain there appears no mention of Wales until we come to that, dated 27 Febrary 1486, making Jasper Duke of Bedford and others Commissioners and Governors of all the King's mines of gold, silver, tin, lead, and copper in England and Wales. Very little seems to have been done even during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII to develop the lead mines in Wales. Soon after she ascended the throne, however, Elizabeth, on the advice of her Council, set about improving the facilities for developing the mineral resources of these islands by inviting a number of experienced miners to come over from Germany in return for certain concessions. One of these was Daniel Houghstetter to whom the Queen, on 10 October 1564, granted the mines of eight counties in England besides those in Wales. Among these was a copper mine at Keswick in Cumberland which was within the royalties of the Earl of Northumberland, formerly granted to him by the Crown. The Earl immediately challenged Houghstetter's (and therefore the Queen's) right to these ores, with the result that the matter was referred to the Courts. The legal point at issue was whether in granting the manor to the Earl's family together with all mines within the said manor, the mines should also pass. The majority of the judges, however, resolved that although the grant of the manor was good, yet the Crown could not alienate mines which were linked with the royal preroga- tive. This case re-established the right of the Sovereign to search for precious metals in any one's land. As early as 1304-5, as noted above, the Crown insisted on its right to a per- centage of the lead raised from the mine near Llanbadarn,-the rest remaining to the miners for their labour. The omission in the meantime to safeguard the royal prerogative had proved dangerous, and so on 28 May 1568 Queen Elizabeth