tobacco, sugar and spices added to an expanding range of merchandise that came to be thought of as neccessities by a large sector of the population, and the demand for their availability provided an impetus for the establishment and development of retail outlets throughout the provinces. Such development was aided by modest improvments in internal transportation. Though the returns of petty constables, including those of Montgomeryshire townships, testify to the atrocious condition of many roads and bridges in the late seventeenth century, this was nevertheless the period during which the first regular stage-coach and freight-waggon services developed, which in turn supplied these retail outlets. Such services, however, remained very slow, and were certainly unable to supply shops in such a way so as to complement the rapid turnover needed in the sale of perishable goods. This led to a duality in late seventeenth century retailing, with markets and fairs still dominating the sale of perishable goods, such as butter, cheese and vegatables, whilst shops tended to take over the retail of fabrics, hard- ware and those foodstuffs less liable to perish.11 Such were the goods sold by Cadwalader Jones. The heading of the inventory of his stock, drawn up two days after his funeral, describes Cadwalader Jones simply as a 'shopkeeper'. His will, however, gives a more precise description of his occupation, calling him a 'mercer'. A contemporary (1696) definition of a mercer was, in city, one that deals only in silk and stuffs; in country towns, one that trades in all sorts of linen, woollen, silk and grocery wares'.12 The stock held by Cadwalader Jones at the time of his death accurately reflects the latter half of this definition. The first page of the inventory lists that which would today be described as mercery, ranging from 'flowered and striped chiffon' at a shilling a yard, to 'white muslin' at eightpence a yard. Also included are manufactured products, such as handkerchiefs at eightpence each, aprons and bibs at a shilling each and 'a gross of twisted thread laces', valued at 3/6d. On the second page is included the most expensive fabric sold by Cadwalader Jones, being silk, valued at thirteen shillings a yard, though most of the articles listed on this page are of a more general character, including paper, mirrors, candles and straw hats. Tallow, for the making of candles seems to have been stocked in bulk, there being over 3 cwts. in the shop, valued at almost £ 7. At the bottom of that page are listed currants, brown candy, sugar, pepper and ginger, these being precisely the sort of foodstuffs that could be stocked over a period of time without fear of their perishing, UC. Wilson — England's Apprenticeship 1603-1763 London, 1965. p. 178. a Sir J. A. H. Murmy (ed.) Oxford English Dictionary VoL VI Part II. Oxford, 1908. p. 345.