settled land. And yet, of what is now so peaceful and attractive, only the main outlines can be ascribed to nature. The rich pastures of the valleys, the ancient ways leading across the hills, the old mills at the river- sides, and the woodland on the the valley slopes are all due to man's intervention. Nor has the result been achieved in a few years the complex series of actions and re-actions, between man and his external environ- ment, has been in operation since he first came into the area. The work of the Powysland Club might well be considered as a co-ordinated attempt to understand and explain the efforts, by which our predecessors have helped to make our countryside the beautiful thing it is, and in the process of which have been built up those qualities of mind and character, that are shared by the present men and women of Powys. The following notes are merely a few suggestions as to lines along which investigations might be conducted. It will be seen that there is ample work for all, and that it is of such a range and variety as to appeal to all tastes Since the Ice Age passed away, with its arctic flora and fauna, Montgomeryshire has seen important changes of climate and vegetation. Dry periods appear to have been interspersed with moist, mild periods with more rigorous conditions. Much information as to these fluctuations might be obtained by a study of the glacial and fluvio-glacial deposits, that cover so much of our area, and of the peats of the moorland parts. During what period, or periods, was the peat formed ? Are there any traces of man below, and therefore older than, the peat ? Remains of what species of trees are em- bedded in it ? Do their roots penetrate the underlying soil, suggesting, that they were killed by the unfavourable conditions, which caused the growth of the peat ? Here the geologist might derive much help from the botanist and zoologist, if these can be tempted away from the countless other problems, which the county is waiting for them to solve.