Returning to the Seline family, and using them to note changes in the occupations of the successive generations of one family, another member, Moses, was also a silversmith and jeweller (Pearse's Swansea Directory 1854). In 1858, there were eighteen watch and clockmakers, including eight members of the SHC. In 1869 (Pearse and Brown's Swansea Directory), Isaac Seline is among fourteen pawn- brokers in the town, of whom thirteen were Jewish. By 1881, Isaac had also opened a Loan Office in High Street, Swansea (Swansea Commercial Directory). At this time there were six loan offices (money lenders) in Swansea, of whom five were Jewish. By 1895 (Kelly's Directory of South Wales) David Moses Seline was a solicitor and Isaac was listed as a financier. The title of financier was, obviously, more in keeping with his rise up the echelons of Swansea society than 'money lender'. The reason why so many Jews were in the business of money lending goes back in history to the beginning of the thirteenth century, when Christian rulers and Christian Ordinances barred Jews from virtually any source of work except money lending. Jews were renowned for this profession, which usually continued from father to son down the generations. Being self-employed was of great importance as the Jewish community began to settle and thrive, as religious Jews needed to follow a trade or profession in which they would not have to work from sundown every Friday until sundown on Saturday, to enable them to attend synagogue. In more recent times, as businesses expanded, some Jewish owners were able to employ staff to work for them on Saturdays. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Seline family had a dentist in the family, Henry Seline. The history of this family shows how the Jewish families of Swansea became assimilated into wider society and entered professions rather than continuing in the family businesses, which had usually meant long working hours and hard working conditions. It is interesting at this time to study the occupations of Swansea's Jewish community. For example, in Wright's Swansea and Llanelly Directory of 1889-90, the occupations included H. Goldberg and Co. ship and insurance brokers. To have risen to these heights in trade was the exception rather than the rule in Swansea society in general, let alone among a group which had so recently arrived in Britain. The majority of Jews, however, continued the more traditional trades such as cabinet makers (William Michael), clothes dealers (Nathan Lewis), clothiers and outfitters (Abram Freedman), furniture brokers (Israel Bloom), painters (Max Mendelssohn), glaziers and decorators (Barnett Freedman), picture dealers (B. Shatz), photographers (Siedle Bros.), watch and clockmakers and jewellers (Wear- bart Kaltenbach). There were also shopkeepers such as butchers and slop sellers. The trade name 'slop seller' comes from the word slop, meaning ready-made or cheap clothing, and in the Royal Navy the term long applied to the clothing, towels, blankets and the like which were sold from the ship's store, which was known as the slop shop. In Matthew's Trade Directory, as early as 1830, slop sellers included Joseph Barnett, George Jacob and A. Marks. In Robinson's Commercial Directory of 1840, Jacob Joseph and Moses Moses are listed. In Pigot's Directory ofEngland and Wales (1844)*the list of slop sellers includes Zaleg Wolff Cohen, Harris (later Anglicised to Henry) and Abraham Lyons, Harris Marks and George and Joseph Jacobs. By 1848 they had been joined by Goldon Cohen. By 1850 at least one slop seller had added to his name 'and Co.' Hyman and Co., suggesting that he had branched out from being a family business to a larger concern. The Harris and