THE TWO JOHN LINNARDS SWANSEA CLOCKMAKERS AND THEIR CLOCKS WILLIAM LINNARD All visitors to Swansea Museum admire the two imposing long-case clocks by Joseph Kern now on display on the stairs. Kern was a clockmaker in Swansea, and a contemporary of my ancestors John Linnard senior and junior, who made similar clocks in Swansea during the nineteenth century. This article is an account of the Linnard clockmakers and their clocks. According to family tradition, the Linnard family in Swansea originated with a certain William Linnard (the author's great-great-great-grandfather), who came as a young man from 'the Low Countries, near the French line, sailing in his own boat'. He sailed first to Ireland but then came on to Swansea where he settled and became a harbour pilot. The first official record of the family in Swansea appears to be of the marriage of William Linnard to Mary Walter on 26 September 1784 at St Mary's church, but the marriage certificate suggests uncertainty over the name Linnard, and for a couple of decades thereafter confusion persisted over the spelling of the name, which only became firmly established as Linnard after about 1810. The forms Linard, Linnard, Leonard, Leondid, Lionard, Lismard, Linnet, Linnett and Linnaird are all found in various documents. William Linnard, the pilot mariner, and his wife Mary had several children, but the registers of St Mary's (Swansea) do not provide a totally clear or complete pic- ture. In addition to the confusion caused by the inconsistent spelling of the surname, some births were apparently not registered. The register of St Mary's records the death of William Leonard, presumably the pilot, who drowned on 6 December 1804, aged 44 years. However, it is certain that one son of the marriage, John, later became a clockmaker at Swansea, and that one daughter, Catherine, gave birth to a son, John, who also became a clockmaker. There were thus two clockmakers with the same name: John Linnard. THE CLOCKMAKERS The clock business was established by John Linnard (apparently born ca.1794; died 1852). Nothing is known of his early life. He may have joined the local Militia, but he certainly served for a time in the 53rd Regiment of Foot in the Peninsular War,