treated became Mo-aid or Mad. Another practice was to add the suffix -og. It would appear that both respectful additions have helped to pro- duce the name Madog. The lands of the Madog llan, like those of the others already mentioned, were given to the Abbey of Strata Florida by Rhys ap Gruffydd, who signed a charter in the Church of St. Bridget in 1184-not in the Church of St. Clements, Rhayader, as Jonathan Williams asserts. Why the Lord Rhys should have chosen not Capel Madog but another church in the commote for that ceremony is a question which we will consider later. The llan was probably rejuvenated by being incorporated with Strata Florida, and a close connexion would have been maintained. One need not question the county historian's reference when he says, "It is recorded that the inhabitants of this religious establishment were accustomed, on certain periodical seasons, to visit their brethren in the Abbey of Strata Florida, in the county of Cardigan, marching over the hills in procession, and making the rocks re-echo their loud and chaunted hymns."5 At the dissolution of the monasteries the land owned by the Abbey- the Grange, as it was called-was seized by the Crown, and thenceforth Llanfadog had no further ecclesiastical connexion. Before passing to the fourth llan, the one that has given its name to the whole parish, we may try to place the first three llannau in a historical context by saying something about their founders. The earliest llan would be the Llaneinon. St. Einion (Einon) was a first cousin and contemporary of Maelgwn Gwynedd, the north-Walian prince who is said to have died of the plague in 547. The fifteenth century poet Hywel Rheinallt in a laudatory cywydd states that St. Einion had two churches, one in Lleyn and the other somewhere in Gwynedd. The Lleyn foundation was Llanengan, where the saint was buried. It was famous in the mediaeval period as a place of pilgrimage. The other dedication has so far remained unidentified. It was probably the llan on the Claerwen. To the question whether it could rightly be regarded as in Gwynedd one might reply that even today Bangor diocese extends to Llangurig. Einon is traditionally associated with the monastic movement in North-West Wales, both in Bardsey and in Penmon, Anglesey, where his brother Seriol was head of a community. It would not be surprising if his interest extended to Mid-Wales, especially if the supply of land in the north was becoming limited. The Llaneinon was quite near Llanafan Fawr, founded by St. Afan Buellt, who was a second-cousin of Einion. Although along the main road Llanafan church is about twenty miles from that part of the Claerwen where the old llan lay, across the hills the two were not more than a few miles apart. The map shows that Llanafan had a Llan Fawr and a Llan Wen, and it is evident that these districts lay nearer the Claerwen than the present Llanafan church. Evidence of St. Afan's association with north-Walian monasticism is provided by the joint dedication to him, with two other saints, of Llantrisant, Anglesey.6 St. Einion has come down in ecclesiastical history with the title' Frenin (King), and before the Reformation a gilded, crowned image of him stood in the church at Llanengan. The significance of the title is not clear, but it is interesting to consider that just across the Wye in Rhwng Gwy a Hafren we find St. Cynllo with the same title. It has sometimes been