original (c. 1838) configurations (a pair of independent reciprocating beam engines) and their up-rating and modernisation (with flywheel coupling and jet condensers) in the mid-ninteenth century. Discarded fragments from the engines, including large pieces of cylinders and pistons, were excavated and recovered for display on site. The blast furnaces The third area targeted for detailed investigation was that formerly occupied by the blast furnaces themselves, an area that had been deeply buried beneath thousands of tons of dumped waste. Here it was decided to excavate some 5000 tons of waste in order to create an events 'amphitheatre' on the site. The bases of the furnaces, one a masonry stack of the 1850s or 1860s, the other a circular iron-bound stack of the 1890s, and associated Cowper-type hot-blast stoves and subterranean passages, were recorded in detail, prior to reburial beneath the new paved floor of the events arena. The paving design replicates the underlying archaeology for interpretative purposes. Progressive archaeology The regeneration of this brownfield site has presented an opportunity to promote industrial archaeology in a contemporary social context. In particular, it has formed part of a conservation programme, which has integrated nature conservation, historic standing structures and buried archaeological remains, as well as providing a new use for a derelict brownfield site. In this way archaeology has shown it can perform a progressive role, making sites accessible to those local communities who once played such an important part in Britain's industrial history. Paul Backhouse, Oxford Archaeological Unit CYFARTHFA IRONWORKS, MERTHYR TYDFIL (SO 0380 0690) A watching brief was undertaken on behalf of Merthyr Tydfil Council and Cadw during clearance and consolidation work on the ironworks site. The site, close to the confluence of the Taff Fawr and Taff Fechan rivers, was chosen originally because of its suitability for iron production. Water was diverted from the river to power the machinery