this Estate."6 He maintained that many of these coppices of oak should have been sold in 1812 when timber and bark prices were higher rather than now, in 1814, when there was "every reason to believe there will be a free intercourse with the different nations on the Continent of Europe .6 Thomas Johnes of Hafod on the other hand carried out a vigorous policy of reafforestation. He wrote in the Annals of Agriculture in 1798 that he had "far exceeded, this year, my planting of last season. The account of my gardener has given me is as under Larch 550,000, alder 17,700, birch 1,000, mountain ash 2,000, beech 4,000, broadland elm 22,5oo-at six score to the hundred".8 To encourage further planting, prizes were offered by T Gymdeithas er Cefnogi Hwsmonaeth a Diwydrwydd yn Sir Aberteifi (The Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture and Industry in the County of Cardigan) "To the person who shall plant during the season (viz. from September last to May) the greatest number of forest trees, in order to raise timber, not fewer than four thousand, and effectually fence and secure them, three guineas".9 But despite these incentives and the efforts of certain landlords, the greater part of the county was still considered woodless in 1814 according to Gwallter Mechain.10 If the woodlands were small, the unenclosed common and waste lands of the county were extensive. Out of a total acreage of 435,492 acres, the estimated acreage of common fields' and waste lands' lying unenclosed according to a Board of Agriculture Report in January 1795 was 206,720 acres.11 The greater part of south Cardigan- shire had been enclosed or was in the process of being enclosed. The newly enclosed tracts varied from six to twenty acres and upwards.'1" The upper part of the county was also said to be' pretty well inclosed,'18 with the exception of hilly and exposed situations. Even so an in- complete return made by the Tithe Commission in 1843 put the estimated acreage of unenclosed common and waste lands as low as 94,910 acres.14 By 1873 according to another inaccurate report it was down to 33,264 acres (6,167 acres were considered to be cultivable and 27,097 acres were mountain or otherwise unsuitable for cultivation).16 Indeed, sub- stantial areas of unenclosed common and waste lands survive to the present day. Cardiganshire County Council reported to the Royal Commission on common lands, 1955-1958, that there were in the county 40,675 acres of common land and 4,642 acres of common rough grazings, out of a total acreage of 443,1 89.16 The old manorial waste lands of the lordships of Creuddyn, Mefenydd and Perfedd (23,862 acres), Cors Fochno (2,500 acres), and the 8,740 acres owned by the City of Birmingham Water Department in Ysbyty Ystwyth, Caron Uchaf and Gwnnws Uchaf were the largest areas of common land. Other scattered areas (5,573 acres) included Caron Uchaf, Caron Isaf, Mynydd Silian and Rhos Gelli-gron.