THE CREATION OF THE BANGOR CATHEDRAL CHAPTER MUCH research is still needed before a full understanding of the ecclesiastical history of Bangor is possible. One phase in this history that requires examination is the period when Bangor cathedral witnessed the development of a cathedral chapter. In the middle of the thirteenth century, the Bangor chapter consisted of a dean, three archdeacons and a handful of canons.2 The papal taxation of 1291 supplies a more detailed picture: apart from the dean and three archdeacons, six canons and a rural dean of Arfon were assessed for taxation purposes.3 This article attempts a detailed reconstruction of the formation of this chapter and argues that the introduction of a capitular system occurred at some time in the period 1177-1215. The analysis has three parts: the first provides an introduction to the history of the chapter by examining the ecclesiastical situation at Bangor before the Normans arrived; the second discusses how a close study of the sources suggests a period of reform, in 1177-1215, and strives to identify the bishop responsible for these changes. Finally, the reasons for the slow development of a chapter are considered. In general, the article will seek to present the difficulties encountered in studying the Welsh church in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, both ecclesiastic- ally and politically, and the way in which Welsh church life reacted to, and was changed by, these momentous developments. 1 This article is based on research being conducted at the University of Wales, Bangor, on Welsh cathedral chapters, 1100-1300. I should like to thank Dr Huw Pryce for his comments on an earlier version of this article. 2 TheVfaluation off Nforwich], ed. W. E. Lunt (Oxford, 1926), pp. 193-6. 3 T[axatio] E[cdesiastica] A[ngliae et Walliae auctoritate P Nicholai IV, Circa A.D. 12911 (London, 1802), p. 290.