CARDIFF'S NORWEGIAN HERITAGE. A NEGLECTED THEME* When, in 1987, the Norwegian church in Cardiff was removed from its original place at Bute West Dock, dismantled and stored, and eventually rebuilt in 1992 in its new position at Britannia Park opposite Pierhead Buildings, a symbol was created for Cardiff. Since then the event has aroused a great deal of interest, both within the Norwegian descendants' community and among the general public. In the nineteenth century, Cardiff had been one of Britain's three major ports beside London and Liverpool and was not unjustly known as 'Coal Metropolis: Cardiff'2 At that time, the Norwegian merchant fleet was the third largest in the world after the British and American fleets, and Cardiff had become something of a focus for its operations. In 1826 the production of high-quality bituminous steam coal in the I wish to thank Peter Persen for his generosity in providing most of the Norwegian sources which otherwise would have remained inaccessible to me. Thanks are also due to Alan Milne of the Butetown History and Arts Centre for many useful pieces of information. I also wish to thank the following for sharing some of their personal memories and making them available to me: Mr Eriksen, Mr Hansen, Mrs Olsen, Mr B. M. Rasmussen. 1 For example, Susan Edwards, 'The Norwegian Church, Cardiff', in Glamorgan Archivists 'Annual Report (1992), pp. 35-6; Ambassador Tom Vraalsen, 'Norway and Europe: co-operation after the referendum' (unpublished speech to an information lunch at the Norwegian Seaman's Church in Cardiff, 11 May 1995); John Greve, 'Reminiscences of the Norwegian community in Cardiff' (unpublished lecture to the York Anglo-Scandinavian Society, 26 April 1990); Ellen Wayne, 'The Norwegian Seaman's Mission in Cardiff' (unpublished manuscript for a lecture to the Welsh- Norwegian Society in Cardiff); GrosvenorWaterside, 'A little piece of Norway in the Bay', in Waterside, NCM Move into Landmark Headquarters, Vol. 1/3 (1995), 5; numerous newspaper articles in the South Wales Echo and the Wistern Mail; various leaflets published by the Welsh-Norwegian Society and the Cardiff Bay Development Corporation.