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ANOTHER NATIONALISM: THE BRITISH UNION OF FASCISTS IN GLAMORGAN, 1932-40 ALTHOUGH Britain's premier fascist party in the 1930s, the British Union of Fascists (BUF)1, was one of the least successful in Europe. It none the less acquired a good deal of active and inactive support. The best available estimates of BUF membership give a picture of a rapidly growing movement following its foundation in October 1932, reaching a peak of some 50,000 members by mid-1934, only to decline to 5,000 members by late 1935, followed by a revival to 15,000 members in late 1936 and 22,500 members by the outbreak of war. These figures compare favourably with those for membership of the BUF's main political opponent and rival, the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). Communist Party membership in November 1931 was 6,000, with few signs of any improvement. However, the impact of the campaign against fascism at home and abroad, especially with communist involvement in the Spanish Civil War, saw a great rise in this figure as membership reached 7,500 in early 1936, 11,500 in November 1936, 12,250 in May 1937, and, by mid-1939, 18,000.3 Both the BUF and the CPGB, then, had similar experiences as far as national recruiting is concerned. However, their regional profiles were, in certain respects, quite dissimilar. London was the stronghold of both parties, especially East London, where there was often fierce competition for working-class support,4 but outside London the picture was different. Whereas the BUF's strength lay in England, particularly in the south-east, and in the cotton- and wool- manufacturing areas of Lancashire and Yorkshire, the communists' main strongholds were to be found in the industrial areas of Scotland and Wales. For the BUF these two areas proved to be almost barren throughout its short life. Wales, in particular, held little hope for the fascists, so much so that Sir Oswald Mosley, in a private address to his national officers in June 1937, conceded that Wales was one of the worst areas for their movement., In Wales, the main area of organized BUF activity was, throughout the period, to be found in Glamorgan, with some success also recorded in the The British Union of Fascists underwent a variety of changes of title, from the original British Union of Fascist Parties to British Union. For convenience, the title BUF is used throughout this article. 2 G. C. Webber, 'Patterns of Membership and Support for the British Union of Fascists', Journal of Contemporary History, 19 (1984), 575-606. 3 Henry Pelling, The British Communist Party (London, 1958; paperback edn., London, 1975), pp. 67, 104. 4 Phil Piratin, Our Flag Stays Red (London, 1948; paperback edn., London, 1978), pp. 32, 37, 40. i Special Branch report in Home Office files held at the Public Record Office, Kew, HO 144/21063, 692, 242/213.