explain why he was so widely acclaimed by his contemporaries. For this is essentially a local celebration, first delivered to a local history society, and it is here that its excellence resides. Particular attention is given to Williams's Monmouthshire connexions, from birth to later life, ac- companied by map and photographic record. Indeed, the study concludes with a glimpse of the impressive memorial, erected at the eponymous Parc Dafydd Williams in Caerphilly, which nicely encapsulates the pride once invested in this famous native son. The memorial inscription is certainly wrong in its assertion that Williams 'drafted the First Constitution of the French Revolution', but it is surely right to suggest that he was one of the foremost Welshmen of his day. With any luck Richards's commemoration, together with France's excellent work, will pave the way for a full biogra- phy and thus help to establish Wales's contribution to European politics and culture in the Age of Revolutions. MALCOLM CROOK Keele INTEGRATION, ENLIGHTENMENT, AND INDUSTRIALIZATION: SCOTLAND, 1746-1832. By Bruce Lenman. The New History of Scotland, 6. Edward Arnold, 1981. Pp. vi, 186. £ 4.95 (paperback), £ 9.95 (hardback). This is a study of what Mr. Lenman in his preface calls 'the most deferential province' in 'the British Atlantic Community'. With the defeat of the last Jacobite rebellion in 1746, the Scottish political nation became, and was recognized to be, solidly loyal to the house of Hanover, its loyalty most clearly demonstrated during the crises of the American and French revolutionary wars. What encouraged this loyalty was not only the elaborate system of political management and patronage presided over first by the earl of Islay and from the 1780s by Henry Dundas, but also the wider 'opportunities for enrichment and advancement' which the British state and British society offered to a growing number of talented, well-educated and ambitious Scots, as businessmen, diplomats, medical entrepreneurs, writers, architects, and so on. But if this 'integration', which is the major theme of the book, contributed to Scotland's growing social and economic prosperity in the later eighteenth century, it had a more unsettling effect on Scottish culture. It produced what the author calls an 'identity crisis' (pp. 96, 129), embodied in figures like Walter Scott or the painter, David Wilkie, who were tied in one sense to the British establishment on whose patronage they depended, yet who were inspired in much of their work by the vision of a pre-Union, pre-industrial Scottish community of a kind which in reality was fast ceasing to exist. The result was a conflict of values comparable in some respects with that emerging at about the same time in Wales, and recently discussed in Dr. Prys Morgan's The Eighteenth Century Renaissance. Mr. Lenman is more inclined to make comparisons with Ireland (pp. 67, 102, 104), particularly of the differing radical traditions of the two countries. Indeed, his whole interpretation of Scotland's history in this period is appropriately international in scope. He follows the Scots on the Grand Tour to Italy, discusses the motives and achievements of Scottish emigrants to America,