commissioned by the Dyfed Archaeological Trust which has also, in its brief period of existence, contributed significantly to our knowledge of the early history of this long-established urban settlement. Mr. Terrence James has attempted to 'study Carmarthen as it manifests itself physically'. Having briefly described the geological and geographical factors which determined the location of the site, Mr. James comments on the absence of information on the occupation of Carmarthen in the pre-Roman period. He proceeds to examine the evidence of recent excavations, including those organised by the Trust in 1976 and 1978, and confirms the emphasis placed on the importance of Roman Carmarthen as a civil as well as a military settlement. Reference is made to the problems of evaluating the extent of settlement continuity in the post-Roman and early-Christian period and the detailed survey presented of medieval buildings and sites which reflected military, ecclesiastical and agrarian activities in Old and New Carmarthen. Mr. James justifiably points out that the researcher is now able to rely on documentary as well as archaeological evidence. He successfully exploits the various sources but there is an occasional lack of clarity in the citation of references to documents in the Public Record Office (pp. 28 and 30). The final chapter, 'The Post-Medieval Period', which surveys some of the more significant developments from the Tudor period to the present day, may be regarded as a postscript to the more substantial chapters on Roman and medieval Carmarthen. One sympathises with the author when he refers to the mass of unpublished documentary sources and the need for a comprehensive survey of the upstanding buildings of the modern period. However, in view of his declared intention to 'cover the whole period of human activity within the town' one is disappointed at the neglect of relevant studies of modern Carmarthen, including those of Professor E. G. Bowen on commercial developments and the Baptist churches. The emphasis on the early period is also reflected in the twenty-one maps, figures and illustrations, most of which admirably clarify and supplement the chapters on Roman and medieval Carmarthen. The twenty half-tone plates have been carefully-selected and, of these, seven depict military, commercial and industrial aspects of post-medieval Carmarthen. The volume, containing a bibliography and index, has been attractively produced with a soft cover, A4, double-column format. The wealth of archaeological and topographical information ensures that the survey constitutes a valuable and stimulating study of a town which was described in the Tudor era as 'the farrest in all South Wales, and of the most scevillytie' and 'the largest in Wales, fair and in good estate'. D. HUW OWEN Cardiff THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE WELSH MARCHES. By S. C. Stanford. Collins, 1980. Pp. xvii, 288. £ 12.50. As a synthesis of modern work, including most notably that of the author, this volume will prove valuable to all who are interested in the