in Powys had been granted by Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn to his fourth son, William de la Pole, to be held of his eldest son Owain by military service; Mawddwy was therefore a mesne lordship of Powys.29 In the lordship of Glamorgan, too, one Welsh lord survived. The kingdom of Morgannwg had been conquered by Robert Fitzhamon at the end of the eleventh century, but the Welsh rulers of some of the upland commotes survived to hold their lands of the new lord. The rulers of these member lordships of Glamorgan enjoyed the traditional rights of the brenin. The chief lord only had their wardship and marriage and a heriot of horse and arms. All except one of these commotes, which had, as it were, formed a march within the march, were incorporated in the main body of the lordship during the thirteenth century as a result of the state-building policy of the earls of Gloucester; furthermore, the rise of Gwynedd had given the Welsh lords of Glamorgan an alternative focus of loyalty, and Earl Richard and his son, Earl Gilbert, were well aware of the consequent threat. By 1282 the Welsh succession remained unbroken only in Afan, between the Afan and the Nedd, which was held by the descendants of Iestyn ap Gwrgant, the last king of Morgannwg.30 There are references in the records of the fourteenth century to the lord of Abertanat, a detached portion of Merioneth on the Shropshire border which had formed part of the lands of Llywelyn the Great and which was later regarded for administrative purposes as part of Edeirnion. And, finally, there were a few dispossessed barons who had been caught up in the toils of the English legal system as they sought from 1277 onwards to get back their ancestral lands. These, then, were all that remained of the royal houses of Wales after 1282. Most of them had fought on the Welsh side in the final war. Edward seems to have issued a proclamation promising that all who submitted to him should retain their lands and privileges.31 Some were slow to submit: Gruffydd ap Maredudd and Llywelyn ab Owain did not make their peace until June 1283, while Dafydd ap Gruffydd ab Owain of Edeirnion, one of the leaders of the second raid on Oswestry, came into the king's peace after the death of 29 For Mawddwy. see G. T. O. Bridgeman, 'The Princes of Upper Powys', in Mont. Coll., I (1868). 78-103; a detailed study of the lordship is being prepared by Mr. Keith Williams-Jones. 30 The position of the Welsh lords in Glamorgan is discussed by J. Beverley Smith, 'The Lordship of Glamorgan'. Morgannwg, II (1958). 14-37; see also G. T. Clark, 'The Lords of Afan of the Blood of Jestyn'. in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1867, pp. 1-19. 31 H. Ellis (ed.). The Record of Caernarvon (1838), p. 150: 'And Madoc and others say that the said king before that same conquest, ordained and caused to be publicly proclaimed that all who wished to give themselves up or who were admitted into his peace should remain in possession of their property, liberties, inheritances and laws'.