suggested that a finer-toothed analysis in a longer work by Professor Bowen might take greater account of social conditions, the product of historical change as well as geographical features, and would be more useful. It might shed more light on why some kinds of Christianity flourished in some regions and not in others and among some social groups rather than others, without much regard for the geographical distinction between Outer and Inner Wales. As a tool for analysis this distinction is too broad-gauged and unsophisticated to be more than preliminarily useful. Finally, much of what Professor Bowen says about the anglicizing influences of industrialization is illuminating and valid. But he has allowed too little for the point so forcefully made by Professor Brinley Thomas in recent years that industrialization offered the Welsh-speaking Welshman unparalleled opportunities for developing new cultural activi- ties and institutions in his own language. If Professor Thomas grossly underestimated the exposure of the new industrial population to non- Welsh influences, Professor Bowen is in serious danger of overemphasizing it. After all, much of what was most vigorous and novel in the character- istic culture of Welsh-speaking communities in Victorian times: choral singing, patriotic societies, vernacular press, radical politics, found their sources of inspiration in the new industrial regions and not in the rural heartland of Wales. However much a reader may disagree with some of Professor Bowen's contentions, he cannot fail to be stimulated by them. One could wish that an English version of this lecture might soon become available for the wider audience it merits. It would give English readers new insights into the history of Wales. It would help them to realize, if they are not already aware of this, why Professor Bowen has provoked so much new thinking about so many aspects of the Welsh past. They will also appreciate why, under the stimulus of his teaching, a whole generation of distinguished students from his department have done so much to revolutionize the study of human geography and sociology in Wales. GLANMOR WILLIAMS. Swansea. ART IN WALES. A survey of four thousand years to A.D. 1850. Arts Council for Wales, 1964. Pp. 100, with illustrations. 7s. 6d. This is the catalogue of the exhibition held in Swansea in 1964 and arranged by the Welsh Committee of the Arts Council in co-operation with the Swansea Borough Council. It is prepared by Mr. John Ingamells, of the Department of Art of the National Museum, who was in general charge of the exhibition and who contributes a stimulating introduction on 'The evolution of Art'. The catalogue, following the arrangement of the exhibition, is divided into six sections, each with its own introduction. Dr. H. N. Savory writes on 'The Pre-Celtic Beginnings', on 'Early Celtic